Organic Farming: Urgent Requirement of Time

INTRODUCTION

Organic farming is a agricultural production system that ensures the healthy food production by maintaining proper soil and crop conditions by cultivating the land through the use  organic matter such as compost and crop residue, crop rotation and proper management.Organic farming is a production system which avoids the use of synthetically compound,fertilizer,Pesticides and growth regulators. Its primarily aimed in such way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health.

organic farming
organic vegetables

Agriculture has completed one cycle and is turning its phase.Green revolution has proved to be harmful in the 5 decades.The arbitrary use of insecticides and chemicals contaminates soil, water and the entire ecosystem. Off late our farmers are looking back. Now we find organic movement everywhere. But most of the farmers are in confusion about organic farming. They question whether total organic is possible and feasible.This article will discuss the requirements, opportunities and necessary of organic farming.

Agriculture Start  with human civilization . But it was completely dependent on nature. In 1850, chemical fertilizers were used in Western countries. But with the green revolution that started in 1965 in India, chemical cultivation became popular. High yielding hybrids enter our farms. Chemical fertilizers become inevitable to get high yields from this hybrid. These chemical fertilizers tied the way of using arbitrary. government support chemical farming by ignoring harmful effects .It is true that this green revolution has produced enough food for the nation. But in time pest and disease crops started attacking. Toxic insecticides enter the scene for crop protection. The dangerous effects of this poison were very clear soon enough.

Impact of green revolution

orgagic farming
indian farmer

Due to the chemical Farming soil above ground is becoming difficult. Ground water is contaminated with nitrates, sulfide and other chemical insufficiency. Nature’s balance lost and pest attack was out of control.  Today Cabbage and cauliflower require 8 to 10 spray, cotton requires 13 to 15 spray and 30 to 40 spray  in a season. Then u easily imagine the effect of the chemical. This Pesticide becomes the cause of various diseases of the farmer . The farmers is affected by asthma, allergies, cancer and many more health problems.The horrors of this are so much that the name of a train in Punjab is called Cancer Express.This train run full of cancer patients! Become we alert, we lost rich organic diversity and balanced nature. Large amounts of pesticide were used from 1950 to 2018, But the increase in production is only 4 times.Even this growth is not due to the use of chemical farming but rather due to the increase in cultivated area and irrigated area.

The green revolution has become a war against nature. But now we’ve lost the war. Only alternatives with us are surrender of nature again.

Harmful effects of pesticides

For the popularization of hybrid crop the varietal diversity is lost. Mono cropping is now common in agriculture .While production is increasing for chemical farming, the quality of the food is decreasing. Chemical farming affected the soil structure and hence the aeration. It led to decline in the population of useful aerobic microbes in the soil.Soil water retention has been reduced and water conservation has increased. Runoff water eroded fertile top soil. Absorption of soil nutrient was affected due to imbalanced soil pH. Soil microbial activity is play important role to make the nutrients available for plants. Destruction of soil micro-flora badly affected the nutrient uptake by plants. In chemical farming Only 20 to 30% nutrition is absorbed . The remaining parts are dissolved in groundwater and causes water  pollution.The remaining portion of the chemical fertilizer mixed with soil and making it useless for crop production.  Harmful Chemical residues like nitrates, sulfides and heavy metals have accumulated in soil, water and crops. Ultimately the produce from chemical farming has lost the food value.Today Chemical adulterated crops are the major causes of all serious health problems of the population. The newborn baby is being infected with diabetes today and hair turns grey by 20 years of age itself.Nowadays cancer has become a common disease .Cancer has direct link with pesticide adulteration of the food.Agriculture production cost has gone up because off farmer has to purchase hybrid seeds, fertilizers and pesticides from outside. profit from farming became illusive. Increasing the agriculture cost is the  major reason for sudden increase in suicide cases of farmers. New generations of farmers are searching opportunity in cities. Government is announcing loan packages instead of attending the real cause for the situation. Even the millionaire has to eat food only and not the money. If the situation continues for long poor farmer may have to die due to hunger. Sustainable agriculture is the only solution for this complicated situation. Direction is very clear, but reaching the destination is not so easy. However, for the survival of 7.5 billion people on this earth this change is inevitable.

Non-chemical farming

Now let us study the non-chemical methods of farming system. Organic farming, natural farming, zero tillage, sustainable, bio-dynamic farming, Vedic agriculture this method are used as non-chemical farming. We have to find alternative ways of nourishing and protecting the crops after avoiding the usage of chemicals.The basic principles of all these methods are the same.In organic farming  locally available natural inputs are used.Non chemical farming main purpose is keeping away from chemicals and following the nature.We compiled all the simplest ways of non chemical farming under the title of organic farming .

Organic farming should improve the health of plant and other living micro organism which present in the soil . It must enrich and protect bio-diversity. Hence it is a broad based farm management system.The main features of organic farming is the best use and conservation of locally available natural inputs, increasing soil fertility over time and protecting soil micro-flora etc.Organic Farming Supporting human health and welfare.Organically grown crops have more amount of anti oxidant and certain micro nutrient such as vitamins –c,zinc and iron. In fact antioxidant levels can be up to 69% higher in these food.

The increase in self-sufficiency farm profitability for farm inputs. If the farmer gets a profitable job, then the population will be reduced. In this way organic farming can solve the environment, pollution and destroy social imbalances.

Many of people still have a doubt whether this organic farming will feed 1.3 billion people of India. To get this answer we need  to go through the production statistics of before green revolution Indian agriculture.Shown in Tamil Nadu government survey that during 1880-85 the  production of rice was 40 quintals per acre. But now farmers are use all type of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in field but  not able to get same production even they get the half of that yield. It is true that the yield quantity drops while changing from chemical farming to organic farming method But organic farming will increase soil fertility and hence the productivity in long term. Even the pest and disease incidence will come down in organic farming. It is undoubtedly proved that the systematic organic farming gives sustainable higher yield.Now scientist look back and suggest to adopted the organic farming.

Characteristics of healthy soil

Soil should be soft enough so that it can be opened by hand easily. It must have sufficient organic matter so that rainwater percolates easily. In scientific terms let the soil pH be between 6.5 and 7.5. Plants can absorb the nutrients only with the help of microbial activity. In very high or low pH soil microbes cannot survive or work efficiently. This affects the availability of nutrients, absorption, seed germination and crop health etc. Other characteristics of good soil are more than 0.5 % organic carbon, 100 kilograms of Nitrogen, 10 kilograms of Phosphorus and 50 kilograms of Potash per acre in available form.

Humus of the soil is the food and shelter for soil microbes. High humus content improves the soil structure. It enables better soil aeration. Thus the plant roots and soil microbes get sufficient oxygen. Soil temperature remains under control. Good volume of rainwater percolates and hence the availability of soil moisture to the plant improves. Water holding capacity of this soil is more. It creates healthy soil microclimate which supports microbial activity. This condition is called as living soil. Ultimately the plant growth and yield improves. Produce from this kind of crop will have better nutrient content and taste.

Method of organic farming in india

Organic manures

Let us see the methods of supply of necessary nutrients in organic farming in detail. The nutrient content of various organic manures is given below

Manure

% Nitrogen

% Phosphorus

% Potash

COMPOST

1.8 3.2

1.2 1.4

 1.2 2.2

FYM

0.5

0.3

0.4

Vermi-Compost

0.8 1.5

0.4 0.9

1.0 1.8

Poultry manure

2.0 3.2

1.8 2.0

1.6 1.7

Press mud

3.0 3.2

 8.0 8.7

0.9 1.0

Goat mud

2.4

0.88

1.99

Biogas slurry

1.3 1.4

1.2 1.4

1.0

Today  organic manures production is  become a big business . The producers of organic inputs must be need organic input certificate. Only certified farmer are allowed in organic farming. Good quality organic manures should have brown or black color and present 15 to 25 % moisture content. Organic manures have  12 % organic carbon, 0.8 % nitrogen, 0.4 % phosphorus and 0.4 % potash. Carbon and nitrogen ratio should be at least 20:1 and soil pH must be in between 6.5 and 7.5. The upper limit of heavy metals in the organic manures listed below

Production of organic manures

 Most of the traditional farmers use low  quality manures.In western ghat regions, 8 to 10 feet deep manure pit is common. Farmer produce organic manure open place, it causes nutrient losses due to wet in rain water and dry in hot sun . Due to the lack of aeration, excess heat accumulates in deeper levels. Essential  microbes die due to excessive heat and manure heap becomes full of pathogens which affect the crop production.Manure decays rather than decomposing. This low- quality manure is heaped on the farm area before it is incorporated into the ground. Manure dries up and here too, loses nutrients. This defective manure can not give expected result.Here we discuss how to make organic manure properly.

The organic manure is mainly two types     1. Farm yard manures

2.Green Manures

Farm yard manures

Farm yard manures is a mixture of cow dung,litter ,bedding,urine of farm animals and portion of fodder which is not consume by cattle and other domestic wastes.Perfectly decomposed farmyard manure contains 0.5 per cent N, 0.2 per cent P2O5 and .0.5 per cent K2O. Urine, which is wasted, contains one per cent nitrogen and 1.35 per cent potassium.Nitrogen present in the urine is mainly in the form of urea that is reported to losses of volatilization. Nutrients are lost even during storage due to leaching and volatilization .It is almost impossible to avoid losses altogether,  but it can be reduced by practice an improved method of preparing farm manure. The trenches Length should be from 6 m to 7,5 m, width from 1,5 m to 2,0 m and depth of 1,0 m.A roof should be provided to protect the FYM against the hot sun and heavy rain. The mixture of cattle dung and urine litter should be taken directly to the manure pit and distributed equally to the bottom. If necessary, water should be added uniformly.The daily collection of the mixture of cows dungs and urine litter is evenly distributed over the previous layer. This goes on until the heap of manure rises about 30 cm above the ground. It is then thoroughly watered and plastered with mud.

Green manuring

Green fumigation is a more effective way to supply nutrients. Leguminous plants are grown on the farm or outside the farm and the herbage is mixed into the soil. This enriches the humus and nutrient content of the soil. It improves the soil structure also. Sun hemp, diancha, Sesbenia etc.These plants are cut and ploughed in to the soil just before flowering.The addition of green manure 2 to 3 weeks before the main crop is planted it shows in good results. Sun hemp grows between sugarcane rows, bananas, mulberries, etc..After 4 weeks it is incorporated into the soil. Black gram, green gram and cow pea are also in use as green manure crops. Sun hemp, horse gram etc.This helps even for weed control. Root knots of these leguminous plants store nitrogen. Subabul, Gliricidia, Sesbenia etc.

Green manure grown outside the farm or along the fence. Herbage is cut and used as green manure. Farmers can cultivate Green manuring once in 2 years  in his field for excellent crop production.

Composting – an overview

The process of decomposing organic wastes by microorganisms under controlled conditions is called composting. Raw organic materials such as crop wastes,animal wastes,crop residues,food garbage, some municipal wastes and  industrial wastes.After decomposing it becomes suitable for use to the soil as fertilizer resources

decomposed material is called compost. The compost made from farm waste like wheat straw, sugarcane trash, paddy straw, weeds and other plants and other waste is called farm compost. The average nutrient contents of farm compost are 0.5 per cent N, 0.15 per cent P2O5and 0.5 per cent K2OThe nutrient value of farm compost can be increased by application of  rock phosphate or superphosphate at 10 to 15 kg/t of raw material at the initial stage of filling the compost pit. when The compost made from town refuses like night soil, street sweepings and dustbin refuse is called town compost. It contains 1.4 per cent N, 1.00 per cent P2O5 and 1.4 per cent K2O.

Farm compost is made by placing farm wastes in trenches of suitable size, say, 4.5 m to 5.0 m long, 1.5m to 2.0 m wide and 1.0 m to 2.0 m deep. Farm compost are placed in trenches layer by layer.Each layer is well moistened by cow dung slurry or water .
The trenches is filled to a height of 0.5 meters above the ground levels.Compost is ready to apply within five to six months.

Composting is essentially a microbiological decomposition of organic residues collected from rural area (rural compost) or city  (urban compost)

japanese method of composting

Japanese method of composting is very popular and effective  method of manure production.Composting pit height and width should be 3 fit each . Length is according to your convenience. Mainly bricks are used to build the tank above the ground.We can even use wood instead of bricks to save costs. At the bottom, place fibrous materials. Then put a cow dung layer. Spread dry leaves and rubbish in a layer. Spread the dung of cow again. Repeat until the tank is full. Put in top layer di- cot and green materials. Cover it with fertile soil layer at the end.In order to avoid drying, spread straw or dry leaves on the pit. Manure will decompose completely in this method within 2 to 3 months. The compost nutrient content of this Japanese method is better than that of a sunken pit.

Aerobic method of composting

In this method raw materials are heaped on the hard floor. Shade net is spread on the pendal to avoid direct sun.Each heap height and width should be between 5 to 6 feet each.Length depends on your convenience. Distribute dry leaves, organic farm waste, di- cot grass, ash wood, etc. Within the layers. Wet each layer with slurry of cow dung and water. It gives better result if neem and caster, phosphate of rock, sheep and poultry manure, etc are all added. Compost will be ready for use in this aerobic method within 1 month. Even the cocoon coir pit becomes a good compost when using an OMD mixture. But it takes 3 months to decompose. Most of  farmers who follow organic farming use this method to prepare composting.Using 2 tons of this compost results in better than 10 tons of conventional manure. We can get better compost when we feed it to earthworms.

Vermi compost preparation

Vermi-compost is very popular among organic farmers. There are 2 types of earth worms. One type of worm burrows deep in to the soil and the other one lives in top soil.The top soil feeds 10% of the soil and 90% of organic matter. It eats the same weight as its body and every day. Earthworms add between 30 to 40 kg of nitrogen per acre annually. Vermi compost is rich in growth regulators and hormones. Hence it is the complete manure. Vermi compost has egg cases too. If the farm has sufficient moisture content and organic matter earthworms develop from the eggs and produce compost there itself. We need not apply vermi compost again.

We may give vermi compost to all crops. Apply 1 ton of vermi compost for field crops at the time of sowing or in the row later. Adding half ton of vermi compost to seed beds will improve the growth and health of the seedling. Then give half kilogram of vermi compost to each plant at the time of re-planting and half kilogram after 45 days.  Apply 5 to 10 kg of vermi compost to larger trees each year. Pour water in the vermi tanks and collect as a vermi wash the drained water.This is an excellent mixture of major and micro nutrients, growth regulators and hormones. Even it’s a good pest and disease repellent. By spraying vermi wash we can get excellent crop result.

 method of production of vermi compost 

 Commercially vermi production bigger earth warm are use. Vermi compost production capacity of these worms is much higher than our indigenous worms. It grows up to 5 to 6 inches and lives up to 2 years.It prefers a temperature of 25 to 30 degree and a humidity of 40 to 45 percent. These worms can be fed with dry leaves, crop residues, cane waste, etc. We may feed these worms with dry leaves, crop residues, sugar cane waste etc. But avoid flowers and tobacco plant. Spray water and mix cow dung to the raw material and heap under shade for 3 to 4 weeks.This partly decomposed material is then supplied to the earthworms. If the fresh farm waste is directly provided to the earth warm, it can kill the worms during generate heat.

It is better to provide roof for vermi compost tanks to avoid rain and direct sun. Tanks are normally built with stone or cement for this purpose.However, many farmers follow heap method under shade.Even portable, thick plastic vermi tanks are easily visible. It is advised to limit the width of the tanks to 3 to 4 feet and height to 2 to 3 feet. Length is according to your convenience.Provides a hole to drain excess water from the bottom of the tank. Put material like a cocoon husk in the bottom of the tank . This is necessary to drain excess water and vermi wash. Then put a layer of organic waste material for half feet height. Spread fresh cow dung or slurry on it. Put another layer of organic material. Repeat these layers till the tank is full.Then spread earthworms at 25 worms per square feet at the top. If worms are not available spread fresh -moist vermi compost. Sprinkle water to keep 40 to 45 percent of moisture. Depending on the raw material used, compost will be ready within 2 to 3 months.  The worms go deep in to the tank if water is not given for 3 to 4 days. Then collect the vermi compost from the top. Sieve this compost after drying excess moisture. Continue the production of vermi compost by spreading the raw material again in to the tank.

The enemies of the earthworms are birds, ants, rats and mice. The floor of the vermi compost shed is best placed with stone slab or cement concrete. The water channel around the vermi tank or wood ash spreading prevents ants. But do not use for this purpose any pesticides.Production of vermi compost is a rural commercial subsidiary activity now. This can generate an attractive income for small farmers and landless people.Today Many big dairy sell vermi .

vermi compost
vermicompost

Panchagavya

panchagavya preparation
panchagavya preparation

Panchagavya is an organic product that stimulates plant growth and provide immunity in plant system.This concept is inspire by Vedic.We are giving a representative composition of Panchagavya out of many combinations in use. Panchagavya is made up of nine products. cow Dung  urine from cow, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, tender coco and water. If mixed this product correctly and used proper method, these preparation gives wondrous effects.Take a plastic barrel or concrete tank and put These material into the tank as mention below:

  • Cow dung – 7kg
  • Cow curd –  1kg

Mix the two ingredients in the morning and in the evening thoroughly with a wooden stick and keep for 3 days.

  • Cow Urine – 10 liters
  • Water – 10 liters

After 3 days, mix cow urine and water and mix it regularly in the morning and in the evening for 15 days. After 15 days mix the following and after 30 days panchagavya will be ready.

  • Cow milk – 3 liters
  • Cow curd – 2 liters
  • Tender coconut water – 3 liters
  • Jaggery – 3 kg
  • Well ripened poovan banana – 12 nos.

Mix the content in a barrels after keeping them separately for 3 days. Then keep it for 7 days. Keep on stirring the mixture  in morning and evening hours  with a wooden stick. This mixture should be kept open under shade. Filter this mixture through a net and keep the barrel covered with a cloth and should be kept open under shade It should be fully covered with a wire mesh or plastic mosquito net to prevent the laying eggs by house flies and the formation of maggots.This Panchagavya  will be ready after 30 days.. This is a rich mixture of micronutrients, hormones, plant growth regulators and useful microorganisms. This mixture shows good result of pests and diseases also. Panchagavya may be sprayed to the crops or drenched to the base of the plant. It may be spread at the time of compost production. Excellent result is recorded everywhere with the use of panchgavya.

Use of Panchagavya

panchagavya is a rich mixture of many micro organisms, bacteria, fungi, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, known and unknown growth promoting factors ,micro nutrients trace elements and antioxidant and immunity enhancing factors.Compared to the higher and lower concentrations examined, 3 percent panchagavya solution was found to be the most effective. Three liters of Panchagavya to every 100 liters of water is best for all plants. The power sprayers of 10 liters capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used. It may be spread at the time of compost production .It can be spread during compost production. Excellent result will found using panchagavya.

Seed/seedling treatment: 3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting.  20 minutes is sufficient for soaking purpose. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane plants need to soaked for 30 minutes before cultivation.

Seed storage: 3% of Panchagavya solution can be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them.

Seed/seedling treatment: 3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.

Seed storage: 3% of Panchagavya solution can be used to dip the seeds before drying and storing them.

Bio-fertilizers

Bio fertilizer is another important source of nutrients. This is a mixture of microorganisms supplying plant nutrients by fixation or solublisation. Rhizobium is the most popular bio-fertilizer. This bacteria lives in the root zones of leguminous plant and fixes atmospheric nitrogen. Rhizobium plays an important role in di-cot grams like red gram, black gram, green gram, Bengal gram etc. and in oil seeds like ground nut and soya bean.In every season Rhizobium fix 20 to 40 kilograms of nitrogen per acre .So naturally, 80 to 90% of the crop meets the nitrogen requirement. The yeild of leguminous crop will increase 15 to 30% by Rhizobium treatment.Large amounts of Nitrogen are kept in  the Soil and used by the next crop. However, the effectiveness of bio-fertilizer largely depends on soil type, climatic condition, method of pest and disease management, fertilizer use, sub-species of the microorganism used and method of application etc.

The cost of bio fertilizer is very low. It will be 25 rupees per acre for the treatment of seeds. Rhizobium is grown in laboratories and mixed with charcoal powder then it supplies to  farmers . Prepare Jaggary solution. Smear this sticky solution on the seed. Spread the bio-fertilizer on it and mix thoroughly. Due to Jaggary solution it sticks well on the seeds.Dry the seeds under shade and use it for sowing as early as possible.The simplest and effective method is the seed  treatment by the bio fertilizer

 Cost and availability of Biofertilizers

 
Name of Biofertilizers
Cost of Biofertilizers
Availabilty
Azospirillum
Rs.40/Kg

Professor and Head
Department of Agricultural Microbiology
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Coimbatore – 641 003
Phone: 91-422-6611294
Fax: 91-422-2431672
Email: [email protected]

Phosphobacteria
Rs.40/Kg
Rhizobium
Rs.40/Kg
Azotobacter
Rs.40/Kg
VAM
Rs.30/Kg
here are few more bio-fertilizers in use.

Azotobacter

Azotobacter is the free living nitrogen fixing bacteria which works around the plant roots.It is very useful for vegetables and all other plants .Use of this broad spectrum bio-fertilizer can bring up to 20 % yield improvement in paddy, wheat, sorghum, maize, sugar cane, cotton, potato, sunflower and other crops. In  Azotobacter fix 20 to 40 kilograms of nitrogen per acre in every season. Apart from this it helps also for better seed germination, more root expansions, early flowering and maturity also.  Azotobacter synthesis some plant growth substances  which improve  the plant growth such as vitamin B, IAA, gibberellins, cytokinins etc. Azotobacter produces some antibiotic substances which prevent the development of pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses. It also helps enhances phosphorus availability

Azospirillum

Azospirillum is another bacteria which is also use as bio-fertilizer. This is also a free living nitrogen fixing microorganism. Application is similar to Azotobacter. Azospirillum gives good result in sorghum, minor millets, maize, sugarcane and wheat. Apart from this nitrogen fixing bacteria VA mycorrhiza is used to improve the availability of phosphorus, zinc, copper and sulfur. Its also work on growth promoting substance production (IAA), disease resistance and drought tolerance are some of the additional benefits due to Azospirillum inoculation.
This is a hair like primitive plant which lives in association with plant roots. It gets food from the plant and helps the plant to absorb water and nutrients. The main constraint of VAM is that it cannot be cultured separately. It needs to be maintained with host plant itself. Roots of these host plant is applied to add mycorrhiza to the field.

Azolla

Azolla is a free-floating aquatic fern that floats in water and fixes atmospheric nitrogen and stroe in leaves.It association with nitrogen fixing blue green alga Anabaena azollae.Azolla fronds consist of a floating rhizome sporophyte and small, overlapping leaves and roots. Recently Azolla farming has increased in Rice growing areas in South East Asia and other third World countries.It is used an alternate nitrogen sources or as a supplement to commercial nitrogen fertilizers. Azolla has a lot of protein, amino acids, vitamins (Vitamin A, vitamin B12, beta carotene) and minerals, so it’s a great nutritious diet for animals. Azolla is used as biofertilizer for wetland rice and it is known to contribute 40-60 kg N/ha per rice crop.It has been observed, and well appreciated by rice farmers they cultivate Azolla in rice farm there is increase rice production by 20%.

The phosphorus corrects and is unavailable to the plant at very low pH levels of singers. It is used to provide phosphorus solvent bacteria or PSBs. It can free 12 kilograms of phosphorus per acre in a season. Useful for PSB rice, small bowl, oil seeds, de-coat greens and vegetables. These bacteria can be used for seed treatment, roots dive or directly spreading the soil. PSB requires 200 grams of seeds for medium sized seeds such as ground nut or wheat. PSB is 100 grams enough for small seeds. For root dipping method, add 1 kg of organic fertilizer to the PSB in 10 to 15 liters of water. Root the roots of chicken roots for 5 minutes and sink the plants as soon as possible. This dipping method is suitable for substituting crops like vegetables and rice. Mix 3 to 5 kg PSB and apply 50 kgs of farm yard fertilizer to spread directly on the field.

Keep any organic fertilizer in a cool place without direct sunlight. Avoid contact with fertilizers or any chemicals. Do not use any organic fertilizer after expiration. There are separate strains for different crops in rhizobium. Use only specific strain to give good results.

Cultural practices

Cover crops and mulching cultural practice are becoming popular in India. Some farmers spread green herbages to cover the soil surface. In banana  cultivation banana leaves  wastage are spreads on the soil surface. Rooted cover crops in rubber is a popular practice. It is useful for weeding control, soil and moisture conservation. Mulching  increase the soil microbial activity and hence the soil becomes living soils.Decomposition of mulch adds organic matter to the soil. Percolation of rainwater improves. The Selecting leguminous species for the purpose of cover crop is still better .

Agro forestry  play important role in organic farming.Growing useful plants and trees as live fence and in available free spaces provide organic matter for manuring, firewood and wood for agriculture use .Green manure and fodder species are a good choice for agricultural forestry. agro forestry provides food and shelter for honey bees and birds. So it rich in organic diversity of the farm.Live fence is useful as wind breaker in banana cultivation.Thus agro forestry is the integral part of organic farming.

Inter cropping and mixed cropping are one of the important features of organic farming. Generally leguminous crops are intercropped with mono-cot crops. Sorghum-red gram-cow pea, sugarcane soyabean, maize red gram, banana, cowpea etc. is the popular combinations. Di-cot crops improve the soil fertility apart from crop yield. This improves the growth and yield of mono-cot crops. Mono-cropping leads to deficiency of micro nutrients. Multiple cropping systems are very helpful even for weed, pest and disease management. Likewise crop rotation is useful in organic farming. Paddy crop in Kharif season and ground nut, black gram, green gram, cowpea etc. in Raby season is a popular practice in traditional paddy area. Leguminous crop in the crop cycle improves the soil fertility and the next mono-cot crop gets the benefit. Crop rotation helps to break pest and disease build up also. Deep rooted crops in the crop cycle bring  soil nutrients from lower soil  to the top soil.

Deep and excess Tillage practice is not advisable in organic farming.  Unnecessary ploughing disrupts the structure of the soil and results in soil erosion. In annual crops, tilling is inevitable. In plantations, however, avoid inter culture and cut weeds and use them for mulching. This helps to control weeds and preserve moisture. It creates micro climatic conditions and adds humidity .Micro or sprinkler irrigation is better in organic farming to maintain humid micro climate and for better decomposition of organic matter.

All Weeds are not the enemy of crops. Some weeds helps bring nutrients from lower layer of soil to the upper layer. Removing the weed before flowering stage is the better practice. We may use small rotary tiller for inter-cultivation. Some weeds like Mimosa pudica (touch me not) and cassia tora belong to legume group. This plant storages nitrogen  in root zone and enrich soil fertility.

Limitations and implications of Organic farming

There are a few limitations with organic farming such as

  1. Organic manure is not abundantly available and it can be more costly than chemical fertilizers on a plant nutrient basis if organic inputs are purchased.
  2. Production in organic farming drops especially in the first few years, so that the farmer receives premium prices for organic products.
  3.  Normal Farmer do not understand The guidelines  for organic production, processing, transportation and certification etc .
  4. Marketing of organic products is not streamlined properly. There are a number of farms in India which have either never been chemically managed / cultivated or have converted back to organic farming because of farmers’ beliefs or purely for reason of economics.Those thousands of farmers who cultivate millions of acres of land are not, , classified as organic. Their products are either sold on the open market at the same price or sold purely on goodwill and trust as organic products through selected outlets and regular specs.These farmers may never choose certification due to the costs involved and the extensive documentation that certifiers require.
  5. Those thousands of farmers who cultivate millions of acres of land are not, however, classified as organic. Their products are either sold on the open market at the same price as conventionally grown products or sold purely on goodwill and trust as organic products through selected outlets and regular supplies

sources

https://shramajeewiki.com/English/Organic-Farming-part-1.html

http://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/agri-inputs/bio-inputs/bioinputs-for-nutrient-management/panchagavya

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