Strawberry farming Guide
In India commercial Strawberry farming is possible in temperate and sub -tropical areas of the country.Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) is one of the most important soft fruits of the world. The botanical name of Strawberry is Fragaria x ananassa cv.Dutch, chromosome number 2n=56,manmadehybrid and its native North america. The important cultivated species are F.vesca l(wood Strawberry) , F. viridis,F nubicola. The name strawberry was derived from the berries that are strewn about the plants,and strewn berry eventually became strawberry. The fresh strawberry fruits are rich vitamins and minerals.The berries are non fat and low in calories,rich in vitamin-C,potassium,folic acid,fiber and vitamin B6 .The fruits are canned and shipped in frozen conditions in western country.Over history the strawberry have been used in medicine .Commercial Strawberry farming began in earnest in the early part of the 19th century. In India a few plants of strawberry were brought in the early sixties by NBPGR Region Station ,Shimla,where it spread to other states.The strawberry is commercially grown large scale in Europe and north America.In India commercial Strawberry farming is possible in temperate and sub -tropical areas of the country
The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa Duch), a hybrid between the Scalet or Virginia strawberry (Fvirginiana Duch.) and the pistillate South American F.Chiloensis (L) Duch., and it is an octaploid having chromosome number (2n) of 56 Strawberry plants are perennial, stoloniferous herbs, meaning that they spread via stolons or runners. The leaves are grown from the crown. Flowers are white in colour , about 1 across, with 25-30 yellow stamens and 50-500 pistils on a raised, yellow, conical receptacle. Most cultivars are self-pollinated and therefore do not need cross pollination for fruit set.The strawberry is an accessory fruit because the edible portion is originally non-ovarian.
AREA AND PRODUCTION OF STRAWBERRY FARMING
In India, commercially Strawberry farming practice in plains area mainly for fruits and in hills for raising planting material production. The major growing states in India are Jammu and Kashmir, HP Haryana and UP Uttarakhand A round 30 hectares being taken up Lucknow,Saharanpur, Muzafarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad in UP Its main center of cultivation are Nainital and Dehradun in Uttarakhand. In recent years strawberry is being cultivated successfully in plains of Maharastra (Mahabaleshwar) around Pune, Nasik and Sangali towns. This year around 3,000 acers have been planted and the yield was expected to touch 30,000 tonnes.(According to database 2014- 2015 ). The Panchgan Mahabaleshwar belt contributes around 85 % of the total production in the country .
Strawberry thrives best in temperate climate.It is a short day plant that requires exposure to approximately 10 days of less than 8 hours of sunshine to begin blooming. In the winter, the plants do not grow and remain dormant. For strawberry cultivation the temperature mainted at nearly 25 C.
SOIL REQUIREMENT FOR STRAWBERRY FARMING
Strawberry plant requires rich in organic matter and a well-drained medium loam soil. The soil should be slightly acidic in nature with ph range 5.7 to 6.5.At the higher ph Strawberry plant root formation is become poor.
Mostly Mulching is used in Strawberry farming and before plantation mostly black and silver mulching paper is select.
The main use of plastic mulching is to maintain soil temperature, it also to protecting the roots from cold injury. Advantages of mulching are it helps to reduced fruit decay, soil moisture conservation, saving irrigation water, clean fruits,preventing weed growth and maintain the soil temperature during hot weather and protecting flower from frost.
STRAWBERRY VARIETIES IN INDIA
Strawberries come in a wide assortment of commercially available cultivars(cultivated varieties).Many different cultivars have been developed at Important cultivars/varieties of strawberry Strawberries come in a wide assortment of commercially available cultivars(cultivated varieties).Many different cultivars have been developed at the University of California(Davis campus).Almost all the Strawberries are cultivars of Fragaria X ananassa. Frel (Pink panda) and Samba (Red ruby) are bigeneric hybrids, grown mainly for their flower color rather than their fruit using a closely related species (Potentilla palustris) to introduce pink or red coloration to the flowers. The cultivar Fragaria X ananassa Variegata’ is grown mainly for the decorative qualities of its variegated foliage. A large number of varieties are available. For the hilly areas, some varieties like Royal Sovereign, Srinagar and Dilpasand are suitable. Some of the introductions from California, such as Toiga ,Torrey,and Solana may prove even more successful. Pusa Early Dwarf which has dwarf variety plants. Another variety with rich aroma flavor but softer fruits is Katrain Sweet. Some important varieties are,
It is tolerance to virus and produce numerous runners.Fruit are large deseeert quality excellent and processing quality good.Average weight of the fruit 6.9g ,TSS 12 degree B,acidity 0.97% and sugar 6.1%.
It is an early maturing cultivar and tolerant to viruses. Fruits very large, dessert and processing quality good. Average weight of the fruit 9 g, TSS 12.2 ° B , acidity 0.98 % and sugar 6.2 % .
Fruit is of exceptionally high quality with outstanding color and flavor. It is very resistant to physical damages caused by rain and tolerant to viruses. Fruits very large, it is suitable to fresh market and processing. Average weight of the fruit 15-18 g. TSS 12 B, vitamin-c 55.5mg / 100g , acidity 0.85 % and sugar
It is very successfully grow under summer system and tolerant to viruses and it is quite susceptible to physical damages caused by rain. Fruits large flesh very firm, average weight of the fuit 7.6 g, TSS 12.2 ° B , acidity 0.97 % and sugar 5.5 % . Sweet Charlie It is a short day, early fruiting variety and grows in relatively mild winters. Fruits are wedge shaped, orange color and distinctly sweet flavor.
It is a short day, early fruiting variety and grows in relatively mild winters. Fruits are wedge shaped, orange color and distinctly sweet flavor. Average weight of the fruit 1 7 g , TSS 7 ° B , acidity 0.66 % and moderately firm and high Ascorbic acid
The treatment of seeds with sulfuric acid or GA, thiourea is also known to break the seed dormancy and facilities better germination.
Strawberry can be propagated through seed and vegetative means. Propagation by seed is not considered suitable as the seedlings are not true-to- type is commercially propagated by runners.
A single berry produces thousands of seeds, which are very small and require stratification for a certain period at a recommended temperature (2 Cto 6.5 C for 2-4 weeks) for better germination.
Propagation is done by means of runners that are formed after the blooming season. The plants may be allowed to set as many runners as possible but not allowed to set any fruits. Given the best attention and care, a single plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners. For large scale propagation of virus-free plants tissue culture is widely used
For strawberry farming The soil is ploughed during summer with a soil turning plough which is followed by repeated Ploughing to make soil friable, remove weeds and stubbles. The roots of strawberry are confined in the top 40cm of the surface therefore soil should be fertile and friable. Soil fumigation with a mixture of methyl bromide and chloropicrin helps to increase root system, reduce fertilizer requirement and control weeds. Liberal quantities of organic manure should be incorporated in the soil before plating
PLANTING AND SOWING
The planting distance should be 45cm from plant to plant and 60 to 75 cm. from row to row. In the hills, transplanting is done in March-April and plains is done in September-October. Strawberry can be planted on flat beds, in the form of hill row or matted rows or can be planted on raised beds of 4×4 meters. The soil around the plant should be firmly packed to exclude air.
In India Strawberry farming season is November through March. During these months, the fruits are available in most every major city.
|Maharashtra||August to November|
|North East||November to January|
|North India||September to January|
|South India||January and July|
CARE OF YOUNG PLANTS
The roots of strawberry plants spread out close to the surface. Therefore, the soil should be well supplied with moisture, and hoeing should be done lightly and young plantation be kept weed free.
In cold climate the soil is covered with a mulch in winter to protect the roots from cold injury. The mulch keeps the fruits free from soil, reduces decay of fruits, conserves soil moisture, lowers soil temperature in hot weather, several kinds of mulches are used but commonest one is straw mulch. under the polyhouse strawberry farming is better because quality and quantity of strawberry fruit are much better than outside strawberry .The name of strawberry has been derived from this fact. It saves irrigation water, prevents the growth of weeds and maintain soil temperature.
Since strawberry is relatively shallow-rooted, it is susceptible to conditions of drought. However, in this case it is necessary to ensure that newly planted runners are irrigated frequently after planting, During September and October, irrigation should be given twice a week if there is no rain.During November this can be reduced to weekly intervals. Irrigation can take place once every fortnight in December and January. When fruiting begins, the frequency of irrigation should be increased again. At this stage frequent irrigation gives larger fruits.
MANURES AND FERTILIZERS
Strawberry requires moderate amounts of nitrogen. Addition of organic matter to the soil, in the form of 50 tons of Farm Yard manure per hectare is highly desirable. Farm yard manure may be supplemented by chemical fertilizers to make up the total quantity of nitrogen from 84 to 112 kg per hectare, Phosphorus 56 to 84 kg per hectare, and Potash 56 to 112 kg per hectare. The Phosphatic fertilizer should be incorporated into the soil before plantings
Insect and Pests management Red spider mites ard cutworms are important pests of strawberry. The mites can be controlled with 0.05 per cent Monocrotophos 0.25 per cent wetable sulphur. The cut worms can be controlled by dusting the soil before planting with 5 per cent chloradane or Heptachlor dust at the rate of 50 kg per hectare and mixing it thoroughly in the soil by cultivator
The two commonest diseases of strawberry are red stele, caused by the fungus Phytophthora fragariae and black root rot. The remedy fer the former lies by growing resistant varieties like stelemaster and for the latterto meintain the vigourof the plants and rotate strawberrywith other croos like legume vegetables (beans, peas etc)
Albinism in strawberry is nearly associated with an excess of nitrogen fert lity. Albino fruit of strawberry is a mottled white and tasteless in flavour Onca there is a change in the weather or throlling down on the quality of nitrogen, albino fruit diseppear
The fruit ripens during late February to April in the plains and during May and June at high elevations like Mahabaleshwar, Nainital and Kashmi. For local market the fruit should be harvested when fully ripe but for transport to distant markets, it should be harvested when still firm and before color has developed fully al over the fruit. Harvesting should be done preferably daily.
The yield varies according to season and locality A yield of 20 to 25 tonnes per hectare is excellent though yields up to 50 tonnes per hectare have been reported under ideal conditions.
Since fruit is highly perishable, it is packed in flat shallow containers like cardboard, bamboo paper trays etc. In Strawberry farming harvesting should be done early in the morning in dry conditions.
POST HARVEST HANDLING AND MARKETING
Strawberry farming is a very profitable business for Indian farmer if it marketed well.Strawberries are very soft fruit and so there is a great need for care in reducing and handling, as well as the care of marketing. Usually strawberry fruits are picked in the morning and the same day is sent to the market .Strawberry fruit also is picked in the late afternoon, stored overnight in a Cool place and the following morning sent to market.
Following are the company/ organization who provides tissue culture strawberry plants for strawberry farming
Greenearth Biotechnologies Limited
14A, Jigani Industrial Area,
Bangalore – 562106.
Phone : ++91 80 839 8793 / 839 4933
Mobile : 9845270878
Fax : ++91 80 839 4936
The Energy and Research Institute (TERI)
Micropropagation Technology Park
Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi – 110 003, INDIA
Tel. (+91 11) 2468 2100 and 41504900
Fax (+91 11) 2468 2144 and 2468 2145
Nutritive/Medicinal value of Strawberry
Strawberry is a popular fruit high in nutritive value. In 100 gm of fruits, vitamins (vitamin-c (58.8 mg), high in folate (24 ug), Minerals (Calcium (16 mg) and Iron (0.41 mg), Fiber (2 gm and Sugar (4.89 gm), Antioxidants and Flavanoids (reduce the risk of cancer), non- fat (0.3 gm) and low calories and other important nutrients. The strawberry fruit can be enjoyed alone or as part of salads, meals or desserts. Strawberry Fruits are used for medicinal purpose for sunburn, discolored teeth. digestion and gout. Strawberry consumption can reduce the risk of developing cancer by 50 % due to high level of Vitamin – C ( 30-60 mg / 100 g ) as well as folate and phyto chemical compound such as the ellagic acid and present in the fruit
VALUE ADDITION OF STRAWBERRY FARMING
Strawberry wine production Wineries may be interested in purchasing local strawberries, as fruit increasing in popularity. The value of wine from a pound of strawberries can be ten times greater than the value of the fresh fruit. In addition, over ripe fruit can be used ta make strawberry wine, Strawberry wine can be mixed with honey wine to produce another value-added product.
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